TechnoBlot

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

Idea of Vinoth

Renewable energy, often referred to as clean energy, comes from natural sources or processes that are constantly replenished. The Renewables are increasingly displacing “dirty” fossil fuels in the power sector, offering the benefit of lower emissions of carbon and other types of pollution. For example, sunlight or wind keep shining and blowing, we get energy by means of conversion into Electrical energy. Solar power is based on irradiance of sunlight and the Windpower on wind speed and direction.
A country like India, where we get a clear sunshine for 300+days in a year is most suitable to harness the energy of the Sun. The solar energy system is divided based on the mode of conversion. This may be Solar thermal or Solar Photovoltaic. Solar thermal is the process of converting solar energy into heat energy whereas solar PV is the conversion of solar energy into Electricity.
Solar PV system:
A solar photovoltaic (PV) power system is designed to supply usable solar power by means of photo-voltaic i.e. conversion of light into electricity using semiconductor materials. A solar PV system consists of a technically designed arrangement of several components including solar PV modules to absorb and convert sunlight to electricity, an inverter to convert the DC electricity produced to AC as well as mounting, cabling, and other accessories.
PV systems range from small, roof-top mounted or building-integrated systems (typically kW range) to large, utility-scale power stations [Ground Mounted] (typically tens of MW range).


Solar PV system is divided into three types based on operating principle,
1. On-Grid system
2. Off-Grid system
3. Hybrid system
On-Grid solar Pv system works when there is an EB-supply. The inverter will take the EB voltage as a reference and generates power from Solar. This system can be with the Captive consumption scheme [ Self-consumed] or with Net-Metering facility [ Excess power generated is given to Grid]. This system works only when there is EB supply and if there is no EB power then no Generation of solar power.
Off-Grid system is like a UPS in which the inverter will work without any EB reference. The generated power during sunshine hours can be supplied to load and also stored on the battery. During night time, the dedicated loads will be supplied by the battery as like our Home UPS system.
The hybrid system is a new and innovative scheme which is a combination of both On-grid and Off-grid. The inverter works with/ without EB supply, It supplies power to load, Charges the battery and excess will be supplied to the EB grid during sunshine hours. On Night the loads will be supported by the battery.

ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR PV SYSTEM:
• Solar PV system is renewable, clean, and free source energy, and it’s eco-friendly a there is no emission of pollutants.
• It is more reliable compared to other systems. PV modules come with 25 Years of warranty.
• Low maintenance cost and practically PV panels cleaning is the only major maintenance aspect.
• Small-scale solar plants can take advantage of unused space on rooftops of existing buildings.
• A PV system can be constructed to any size based on energy requirements. Furthermore, the capacity can be increased or decreased based on requirement and proper design has to be carried out with a futuristic view

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